Thermodynamics II

Tong Leung  Office: C2-066A (Tel: 519-888-4567 ext. 35826) or Lab: C2-060-66.  E-mail:
Available any time or make appointment by e- or voice-mail.  Website:

TEXTBOOKS  References only. Course and exam materials will be based primarily on Leung's in-class Lecture Notes Series T2 and handouts.  It is therefore important that you attend all the lectures.

1.   T. Engel, P. Reid, "Thermodynamics, Statistical Thermodynamics & Kinetics", Pearson, New York (2006) - later editions are acceptable  [QD311.5.E65 2006]

2.   D.A. McQuarrie and J.D. Simon, “Physical Chemistry – A Molecular Approach”, University Science Books, Sausalito (1997)  [QD453.2M394]

3.   P.W. Atkins, “Physical Chemistry”, 5th ed., Freeman, New York (1994). Note: 4th edition [QD453.2.A88]

4.   G.W. Castellan, “Physical Chemistry” (1983) [QD453.2.C37]

5.   R.A. Alberty, “Physical Chemistry” 7th ed. (1987) [QD453.2.D36]

6.   ANY Physical Chemistry textbook in the Library.


At least FOUR Problem Sets, plus reading assignments 10 ± 10 %
TWO Term Tests 40 ± 10 %
ONE Final Exam 50 ± 10 %
Total 100 %



Ref. (1)


1 Chapters 1-5
Sect #
Opener: Scope and course orientation
Review of Exact Differential (a Math tutorial)
Review of Thermodynamics-I: Basic concepts; Gases; The three laws; Gibbs equations; Maxwell relations; Relations involving Gibbs free energy (Gibbs-Helmholtz equation; van't Hoff equation)
2 Ch 6
Chemical Potential
Partial molar quantities; Gibbs-Duhem equation
3 Ch 7-8 Example: Spontaneous mixing of two ideal gases
Single-component phase equilibria: Definitions & the Phase Rule;   Clapeyron equation;  Four examples: S to S, S to L (fusion), L to V (vaporization), S to V (sublimation); Clausius-Clapeyron equation;  Phase diagram of a single-component system
4   Phase equilibria of binary systems:
Fugacity & activity; Definition of a solution
5 Ch 9 Ideal solutions and Raoult's law; P or T composition diagrams; Distillation
A   Mid-term/Catch-up
6   Formation of ideal solutions; Dilute solutions and Henry's law; Real solutions - Deviations from ideality; Duhem-Margules equation; Azeotrope
7   Binary equilibria among other phases: Phase diagrams; L-L equilibria.; S-L equilibria & simple eutectic diagrams; compound formation; congruent & incongruent melting; S-S equilibria; applications to metallurgy
Phase equilibria of ternary and multicomponent systems: Phase Rule: Restrictions: chemical equilibria, stoichiometric relations & electrical neutrality
8 Ch 10-11 Thermodynamics of electrochemical systems: Chemical potentials and activity coeff. of electrolytes; Mean activity coefficient and Debye-Huckel theory
9   Basic concepts of a electrochemical cell;   Free energy, entropy & enthalpy of cell reactions;  Standard emf & Nernst equation; Standard electrode potential
Thermodynamics of surfaces: Definition of a surface; Excess (surface) thermodynamic properties
10   Equilibrium conditions for a stable surface; surface tension; Thermal effects of increasing the surface;  Gibbs adsorption isotherm; positive adsorption; other theories.
B   Catch-up/Wrap-up